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A severe musculoskeletal disorder called piriformis syndrome (PS) is characterized by a number of symptoms, which include hip or buttock pain. 

Piriformis syndrome is also described as peripheral neuritis of the sciatic nerve branches brought on by an abnormality of the piriformis muscle (PM), such as an injured or irritated muscle. As per various research, Piriformis syndrome is six times more common in women than in men. The broader quadriceps femoris muscle angle in women’s os coxae can be used to explain this ratio.

The flat, band-like piriformis muscle is situated in the buttocks just above the hip joint. As it stabilizes the hip joint and elevates the thigh away from the body, this muscle is crucial for lower body mobility. This allows us to balance ourselves while walking and transfer our weight from one foot to the other. Additionally, it is used in practically every hip- and leg-related motion in sports that entail lifting and turning the thighs.

The inflammation arises when the piriformis muscle compresses the sciatic nerve, causing piriformis syndrome. It may result in numbness or pain running down the back of your leg and into your buttocks. Either one or both of your body’s sides may be affected.

How common is the piriformis syndrome

Piriformis syndrome does not occur frequently. Piriformis syndrome, according to scientists, accounts for only 0.3% to 6% of lower back discomfort.

Piriformis syndrome vs. sciatica

Sciatica is the term used to describe pain sensations brought on by a compressed sciatic nerve, whereas piriformis syndrome is brought on by a compressed sciatic nerve in the buttocks. This kind of discomfort is felt close to the piriformis muscle.

Sciatica may be brought on by a herniated disc or spinal stenosis. The lower back is typically where the symptoms are most prevalent, but they can also impact the leg and buttocks.

Piriformis syndrome only involves one portion of the sciatic nerve in the buttock being compressed by the piriformis muscle. Though in a more localized location, it might resemble sciatica in some ways.

Why does piriformis syndrome develop?

 Piriformis syndrome can result from anything that causes the piriformis to push on the sciatic nerve.

These are the most typical piriformis syndrome causes:

  • Inflammation (swelling) of the tissues around the piriformis or in it.
  • Muscle cramps.
  • Piriformis muscles that aren’t strong enough when you are  walking, running, or climbing stairs can lead to problems
  • A hip, butt, or leg injury after an accident or after a fall.
  • Tight muscles as a result of an inactive lifestyle
  • Improper lifting of objects that strains the piriformis muscle

What are the various treatment options for piriformis syndrome?

Treatment options for piriformis syndrome include:

  • A couple of rest days.
  • Home workouts that lengthen or build the piriformis.
  • Medications that are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs).
  • Massage is an additional kind of treatment.
  • Medications that ease muscular tension.

Physical treatment for piriformis syndrome emphasizes stretching and building up the piriformis.Piriformis syndrome surgery is usually not recommended unless all other therapies fail. Surgery for this condition may involve removing scar tissue or other sources of pressure on the nerve.



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